Source code for pygmt.figure

Define the Figure class that handles all plotting.

import base64
import os
from pathlib import Path
from tempfile import TemporaryDirectory

    import IPython

    _HAS_IPYTHON = True
except ImportError:
    _HAS_IPYTHON = False

from pygmt.clib import Session
from pygmt.exceptions import GMTError, GMTInvalidInput
from pygmt.helpers import (

# A registry of all figures that have had "show" called in this session.
# This is needed for the sphinx-gallery scraper in pygmt/

# Configurations for figure display
    "method": "external",  # Open in an external viewer by default

# Show figures in Jupyter notebooks if available
    get_ipython = IPython.get_ipython()
    if get_ipython and "IPKernelApp" in get_ipython.config:  # Jupyter Notebook enabled
        SHOW_CONFIG["method"] = "notebook"

# Set environment variable PYGMT_USE_EXTERNAL_DISPLAY to 'false' to disable
# external display. Use it when running the tests and building the docs to
# avoid popping up windows.
if os.environ.get("PYGMT_USE_EXTERNAL_DISPLAY", "true").lower() == "false":
    SHOW_CONFIG["method"] = "none"

[docs] class Figure: """ A GMT figure to handle all plotting. Use the plotting methods of this class to add elements to the figure. You can preview the figure using :meth:`` and save the figure to a file using :meth:`pygmt.Figure.savefig`. Unlike traditional GMT figures, no figure file is generated until you call :meth:`pygmt.Figure.savefig` or :meth:`pygmt.Figure.psconvert`. Examples -------- >>> import pygmt >>> fig = pygmt.Figure() >>> fig.basemap(region=[0, 360, -90, 90], projection="W15c", frame=True) >>> fig.savefig("my-figure.png") >>> # Make sure the figure file is generated and clean it up >>> from pathlib import Path >>> assert Path("my-figure.png").exists() >>> Path("my-figure.png").unlink() The plot region can be specified through ISO country codes (for example, ``"JP"`` for Japan): >>> import pygmt >>> fig = pygmt.Figure() >>> fig.basemap(region="JP", projection="M7c", frame=True) >>> # The fig.region attribute shows the WESN bounding box for the figure >>> print(", ".join(f"{i:.2f}" for i in fig.region)) 122.94, 145.82, 20.53, 45.52 """ def __init__(self): self._name = unique_name() self._preview_dir = TemporaryDirectory(prefix=f"{self._name}-preview-") self._activate_figure() def __del__(self): """ Clean up the temporary directory that stores the previews. """ if hasattr(self, "_preview_dir"): self._preview_dir.cleanup() def _activate_figure(self): """ Start and/or activate the current figure. All plotting commands run afterward will append to this figure. Unlike the command-line version (``gmt figure``), this method does not trigger the generation of a figure file. An explicit call to :meth:`pygmt.Figure.savefig` or :meth:`pygmt.Figure.psconvert` must be made in order to get a file. """ # Passing format '-' tells pygmt.end to not produce any files. fmt = "-" with Session() as lib: lib.call_module(module="figure", args=[self._name, fmt]) def _preprocess(self, **kwargs): """ Call the ``figure`` module before each plotting command to ensure we're plotting to this particular figure. """ self._activate_figure() return kwargs @property def region(self): """ The geographic WESN bounding box for the current figure. """ self._activate_figure() with Session() as lib: wesn = lib.extract_region() return wesn
[docs] @fmt_docstring @use_alias( A="crop", C="gs_option", E="dpi", F="prefix", G="gs_path", I="resize", N="bb_style", T="fmt", Q="anti_aliasing", V="verbose", ) @kwargs_to_strings() def psconvert(self, **kwargs): r""" Convert [E]PS file(s) to other formats. Converts one or more PostScript files to other formats (BMP, EPS, JPEG, PDF, PNG, PPM, TIFF) using Ghostscript. If no input files are given, will convert the current active figure (see :class:`pygmt.Figure`). In this case, an output name must be given using parameter ``prefix``. Full option list at :gmt-docs:`psconvert.html` {aliases} Parameters ---------- crop : str or bool Adjust the BoundingBox and HiResBoundingBox to the minimum required by the image content. Default is True. Append **+u** to first remove any GMT-produced time-stamps. Append **+r** to *round* the HighResBoundingBox instead of using the ``ceil`` function. This is going against Adobe Law but can be useful when creating very small images where the difference of one pixel might matter. If ``verbose`` is used we also report the dimensions of the final illustration. gs_path : str Full path to the Ghostscript executable. gs_option : str Specify a single, custom option that will be passed on to Ghostscript as is. dpi : int Set raster resolution in dpi. Default is 720 for PDF, 300 for others. prefix : str Force the output file name. By default output names are constructed using the input names as base, which are appended with an appropriate extension. Use this option to provide a different name, but without extension. Extension is still determined automatically. resize : str [**+m**\ *margins*][**+s**\ [**m**]\ *width*\ [/\ *height*]][**+S**\ *scale*]. Adjust the BoundingBox and HiResBoundingBox by scaling and/or adding margins. Append **+m** to specify extra margins to extend the bounding box. Give either one (uniform), two (x and y) or four (individual sides) margins; append unit [Default is set by :gmt-term:`PROJ_LENGTH_UNIT`]. Append **+s**\ *width* to resize the output image to exactly *width* units. The default unit is set by :gmt-term:`PROJ_LENGTH_UNIT` but you can append a new unit and/or impose different width and height (**Note**: This may change the image aspect ratio). What happens here is that Ghostscript will do the re-interpolation work and the final image will retain the DPI resolution set by ``dpi``. Append **+sm** to set a maximum size and the new *width* is only imposed if the original figure width exceeds it. Append /\ *height* to also impose a maximum height in addition to the width. Alternatively, append **+S**\ *scale* to scale the image by a constant factor. bb_style : str Set optional BoundingBox fill color, fading, or draw the outline of the BoundingBox. Append **+f**\ *fade* to fade the entire plot towards black (100%) [no fading, 0]. Append **+g**\ *paint* to paint the BoundingBox behind the illustration and append **+p**\ [*pen*] to draw the BoundingBox outline (append a pen or accept the default pen of 0.25p,black). **Note**: If both **+g** and **+f** are used then we use paint as the fade color instead of black. Append **+i** to enforce gray-shades by using ICC profiles. anti_aliasing : str [**g**\|\ **p**\|\ **t**\][**1**\|\ **2**\|\ **4**]. Set the anti-aliasing options for **g**\ raphics or **t**\ ext. Append the size of the subsample box (1, 2, or 4) [Default is ``"4"``]. [Default is no anti-aliasing (same as bits = 1).] fmt : str Set the output format, where **b** means BMP, **e** means EPS, **E** means EPS with PageSize command, **f** means PDF, **F** means multi-page PDF, **j** means JPEG, **g** means PNG, **G** means transparent PNG (untouched regions are transparent), **m** means PPM, and **t** means TIFF [Default is JPEG]. To **b**\|\ **j**\|\ **g**\|\ **t**\ , optionally append **+m** in order to get a monochrome (grayscale) image. The EPS format can be combined with any of the other formats. For example, **ef** creates both an EPS and a PDF file. Using **F** creates a multi-page PDF file from the list of input PS or PDF files. It requires the ``prefix`` parameter. {verbose} """ kwargs = self._preprocess(**kwargs) # pytest-mpl v0.17.0 added the "metadata" parameter to `Figure.savefig`, which # is not recognized. So remove it before calling `Figure.psconvert`. kwargs.pop("metadata", None) # Default cropping the figure to True if kwargs.get("A") is None: kwargs["A"] = "" prefix = kwargs.get("F") if prefix in ["", None, False, True]: raise GMTInvalidInput( "The 'prefix' parameter must be specified with a valid value." ) # check if the parent directory exists prefix_path = Path(prefix).parent if not prefix_path.exists(): raise FileNotFoundError( f"No such directory: '{prefix_path}', please create it first." ) with Session() as lib: lib.call_module(module="psconvert", args=build_arg_list(kwargs))
[docs] def savefig( # noqa: PLR0912 self, fname, transparent=False, crop=True, anti_alias=True, show=False, worldfile=False, **kwargs, ): """ Save the figure to an image file. Supported image formats and their extensions: **Raster image formats** - BMP (``.bmp``) - JPEG (``.jpg`` or ``.jpeg``) - GeoTIFF (``.tiff``) - PNG (``.png``) - PPM (``.ppm``) - TIFF (``.tif``) **Vector image formats** - EPS (``.eps``) - PDF (``.pdf``) Beside the above formats, you can also save the figure to a KML file (``.kml``), with a companion PNG file generated automatically. The KML file can be viewed in Google Earth. You can pass in any keyword arguments that :meth:`pygmt.Figure.psconvert` accepts. Parameters ---------- fname : str The desired figure file name, including the extension. See the list of supported formats and their extensions above. transparent : bool If ``True``, will use a transparent background for the figure. Only valid for PNG format. crop : bool If ``True``, will crop the figure canvas (page) to the plot area. anti_alias: bool If ``True``, will use anti-aliasing when creating raster images. More specifically, it passes the arguments ``"t2"`` and ``"g2"`` to the ``anti_aliasing`` parameter of :meth:`pygmt.Figure.psconvert`. Ignored if creating vector images. show: bool If ``True``, will open the figure in an external viewer. worldfile : bool If ``True``, will create a companion `world file <>`__ for the figure. The world file will have the same name as the figure file but with different extension (e.g. tfw for tif). See for the convention of world file extensions. This parameter only works for raster image formats (except GeoTIFF). dpi : int Set raster resolution in dpi [Default is ``720`` for PDF, ``300`` for others]. **kwargs : dict Additional keyword arguments passed to :meth:`pygmt.Figure.psconvert`. Valid parameters are ``gs_path``, ``gs_option``, ``resize``, ``bb_style``, and ``verbose``. """ # All supported formats fmts = { "bmp": "b", "eps": "e", "jpg": "j", "kml": "g", "pdf": "f", "png": "g", "ppm": "m", "tif": "t", "tiff": None, # GeoTIFF doesn't need the -T option } fname = Path(fname) prefix, suffix = fname.with_suffix("").as_posix(), fname.suffix ext = suffix[1:].lower() # Remove the . and normalize to lowercase if ext == "jpeg": # Alias jpeg to jpg ext = "jpg" elif ext == "tiff": # GeoTIFF kwargs["W"] = "+g" elif ext == "kml": # KML kwargs["W"] = "+k" if ext not in fmts: if ext == "ps": raise GMTInvalidInput( "Extension '.ps' is not supported. " "Please use '.eps' or '.pdf' instead." ) raise GMTInvalidInput(f"Unknown extension '.{ext}'.") fmt = fmts[ext] if transparent: if fmt != "g": raise GMTInvalidInput( f"Transparency unavailable for '{ext}', only for png." ) fmt = fmt.upper() if anti_alias: kwargs["Qt"] = 2 kwargs["Qg"] = 2 if worldfile: if ext in ["eps", "kml", "pdf", "tiff"]: raise GMTInvalidInput( f"Saving a world file is not supported for '{ext}' format." ) kwargs["W"] = True self.psconvert(prefix=prefix, fmt=fmt, crop=crop, **kwargs) # Remove the .pgw world file if exists # Not necessary after GMT 6.5.0. # See upstream fix if ext == "tiff": fname.with_suffix(".pgw").unlink(missing_ok=True) # Rename if file extension doesn't match the input file suffix if ext != suffix[1:]: fname.with_suffix("." + ext).rename(fname) if show: launch_external_viewer(fname)
[docs] def show(self, dpi=300, width=500, method=None, waiting=0.5, **kwargs): """ Display a preview of the figure. Inserts the preview in the Jupyter notebook output if available, otherwise opens it in the default viewer for your operating system (falls back to the default web browser). :func:`pygmt.set_display` can select the default display method (``"notebook"``, ``"external"``, ``"none"`` or ``None``). The ``method`` parameter can also override the default display method for the current figure. Parameters ``dpi`` and ``width`` can be used to control the resolution and dimension of the figure in the notebook. **Note**: The external viewer can be disabled by setting the PYGMT_USE_EXTERNAL_DISPLAY environment variable to **false**. This is useful when running unit tests and building the documentation in consoles without a Graphical User Interface. Note that the external viewer does not block the current process, thus it's necessary to suspend the execution of the current process for a short while after launching the external viewer, so that the preview image won't be deleted before the external viewer tries to open it. Set the ``waiting`` parameter to a larger number if your computer is slow. Parameters ---------- dpi : int The image resolution (dots per inch) in Jupyter notebooks. width : int The image width (in pixels) in Jupyter notebooks. method : str or None How the current figure will be displayed. Choose from: - ``"external"``: External PDF preview using the default PDF viewer - ``"notebook"``: Inline PNG preview in the current notebook - ``"none"``: Disable image preview - ``None``: Reset to the default display method The default display method is ``"external"`` in Python consoles or ``"notebook"`` in Jupyter notebooks, but can be changed by :func:`pygmt.set_display`. waiting : float Suspend the execution of the current process for a given number of seconds after launching an external viewer. Only works if ``method="external"``. **kwargs : dict Additional keyword arguments passed to :meth:`pygmt.Figure.psconvert`. Valid parameters are ``gs_path``, ``gs_option``, ``resize``, ``bb_style``, and ``verbose``. """ # Module level variable to know which figures had their show method # called. Needed for the sphinx-gallery scraper. SHOWED_FIGURES.append(self) # Set the display method if method is None: method = SHOW_CONFIG["method"] if method not in ["external", "notebook", "none"]: raise GMTInvalidInput( f"Invalid display method '{method}', " "should be either 'notebook', 'external', or 'none'." ) if method == "notebook": if not _HAS_IPYTHON: raise GMTError( "Notebook display is selected, but IPython is not available. " "Make sure you have IPython installed, " "or run the script in a Jupyter notebook." ) png = self._preview( fmt="png", dpi=dpi, anti_alias=True, as_bytes=True, **kwargs ) IPython.display.display(IPython.display.Image(data=png, width=width)) if method == "external": pdf = self._preview( fmt="pdf", dpi=dpi, anti_alias=False, as_bytes=False, **kwargs ) launch_external_viewer(pdf, waiting=waiting)
def _preview(self, fmt, dpi, as_bytes=False, **kwargs): """ Grab a preview of the figure. Parameters ---------- fmt : str The image format. Can be any extension that :meth:`pygmt.Figure.savefig` recognizes. dpi : int The image resolution (dots per inch). as_bytes : bool If ``True``, will load the image as a bytes string and return that instead of the file name. Returns ------- preview : str or bytes If ``as_bytes=False``, this is the file name of the preview image file. Else, it is the file content loaded as a bytes string. """ fname = Path( / f"{self._name}.{fmt}" self.savefig(fname, dpi=dpi, **kwargs) if as_bytes: return fname.read_bytes() return fname def _repr_png_(self): """ Show a PNG preview if the object is returned in an interactive shell. For the Jupyter notebook or IPython Qt console. """ png = self._preview(fmt="png", dpi=70, anti_alias=True, as_bytes=True) return png def _repr_html_(self): """ Show the PNG image embedded in HTML with a controlled width. Looks better than the raw PNG. """ raw_png = self._preview(fmt="png", dpi=300, anti_alias=True, as_bytes=True) base64_png = base64.encodebytes(raw_png) html = '<img src="data:image/png;base64,{image}" width="{width}px">' return html.format(image=base64_png.decode("utf-8"), width=500) from pygmt.src import ( # type: ignore [misc] basemap, coast, colorbar, contour, grdcontour, grdimage, grdview, histogram, image, inset, legend, logo, meca, plot, plot3d, rose, set_panel, shift_origin, solar, subplot, ternary, text, tilemap, timestamp, velo, wiggle, )
[docs] def set_display(method=None): """ Set the display method when calling :meth:``. Parameters ---------- method : str or None The method to display an image preview. Choose from: - ``"external"``: External PDF preview using the default PDF viewer - ``"notebook"``: Inline PNG preview in the current notebook - ``"none"``: Disable image preview - ``None``: Reset to the default display method The default display method is ``"external"`` in Python consoles or ``"notebook"`` in Jupyter notebooks. Examples -------- Let's assume that you're using a Jupyter Notebook: >>> import pygmt >>> fig = pygmt.Figure() >>> fig.basemap(region=[0, 10, 0, 10], projection="X10c/5c", frame=True) >>> # will display a PNG image in the current notebook >>> >>> # set the display method to "external" >>> pygmt.set_display(method="external") # doctest: +SKIP >>> # will display a PDF image using the default PDF viewer >>> >>> # set the display method to "none" >>> pygmt.set_display(method="none") >>> # will not show any image >>> >>> # reset to the default display method >>> pygmt.set_display(method=None) >>> # again, will show a PNG image in the current notebook """ if method in ["notebook", "external", "none"]: SHOW_CONFIG["method"] = method elif method is not None: raise GMTInvalidInput( f"Invalid display mode '{method}', " "should be either 'notebook', 'external', 'none' or None." )