Note

Click here to download the full example code

# Vector heads and tails

Many methods in PyGMT allow plotting vectors with individual heads and tails. For this purpose, several modifiers may be appended to the corresponding vector-producing parameters for specifying the placement of vector heads and tails, their shapes, and the justification of the vector.

To place a vector head at the beginning of the vector path
simply append **+b** to the vector-producing option (use **+e** to place
one at the end). Optionally, append **t** for a terminal line, **c** for a
circle, **a** for arrow (default), **i** for tail, **A** for plain open
arrow, and **I** for plain open tail. Further append **l** or **r** (e.g.
`+bar`

) to only draw the left or right half-sides of the selected head/tail
(default is both sides) or use **+l** or **+r** to apply simultaneously to both
sides. In this context left and right refer to the side of the vector line
when viewed from the beginning point to the end point of a line segment.
The angle of the vector head apex can be set using **+a***angle*
(default is 30). The shape of the vector head can be adjusted using
**+h***shape* (e.g. `+h0.5`

).

For further modifiers see the *Vector Attributes* subsection of the
corresponding method.

In the following we use the `pygmt.Figure.plot`

method to plot vectors
with individual heads and tails. We must specify the modifiers (together with
the vector type, here `v`

, see also
Vector types documentation)
by passing the corresponding shortcuts to the `style`

parameter.

Out:

```
<IPython.core.display.Image object>
```

```
import pygmt
fig = pygmt.Figure()
fig.basemap(
region=[0, 10, 0, 15], projection="X15c/10c", frame='+t"Vector heads and tails"'
)
x = 1
y = 14
angle = 0 # in degrees, measured counter-clockwise from horizontal
length = 7
for vecstyle in [
# vector without head and tail (line)
"v0c",
# plain open arrow at beginning and end, angle of the vector head apex is
# set to 50
"v0.6c+bA+eA+a50",
# plain open tail at beginning and end
"v0.4c+bI+eI",
# terminal line at beginning and end, angle of vector head apex is set
# to 80
"v0.3c+bt+et+a80",
# arrow head at end
"v0.6c+e",
# circle at beginning and arrow head at end
"v0.6c+bc+ea",
# terminal line at beginning and arrow head at end
"v0.6c+bt+ea",
# arrow head at end, shape of vector head is set to 0.5
"v1c+e+h0.5",
# modified arrow heads at beginning and end
"v1c+b+e+h0.5",
# tail at beginning and arrow with modified vector head at end
"v1c+bi+ea+h0.5",
# half-sided arrow head (right side) at beginning and arrow at the end
"v1c+bar+ea+h0.8",
# half-sided arrow heads at beginning (right side) and end (left side)
"v1c+bar+eal+h0.5",
# half-sided tail at beginning and arrow at end (right side for both)
"v1c+bi+ea+r+h0.5+a45",
]:
fig.plot(
x=x, y=y, style=vecstyle, direction=([angle], [length]), pen="2p", color="red3"
)
fig.text(
x=6, y=y, text=vecstyle, font="Courier-Bold", justify="ML", offset="0.2c/0c"
)
y -= 1 # move the next vector down
fig.show()
```

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 4.894 seconds)