Figure.plot3d(x=None, y=None, z=None, data=None, size=None, direction=None, *, straight_line=None, frame=None, cmap=None, offset=None, color=None, intensity=None, projection=None, zscale=None, zsize=None, close=None, no_clip=None, no_sort=None, region=None, style=None, verbose=None, pen=None, xshift=None, yshift=None, zvalue=None, aspatial=None, incols=None, label=None, panel=None, coltypes=None, perspective=None, transparency=None, **kwargs)

Plot lines, polygons, and symbols in 3-D.

Takes a matrix, (x,y,z) triplets, or a file name as input and plots lines, polygons, or symbols at those locations in 3-D.

Must provide either data or x/y/z.

If providing data through x/y/z, color can be a 1d array that will be mapped to a colormap.

If a symbol is selected and no symbol size given, then plot3d will interpret the fourth column of the input data as symbol size. Symbols whose size is <= 0 are skipped. If no symbols are specified then the symbol code (see style below) must be present as last column in the input. If style is not used, a line connecting the data points will be drawn instead. To explicitly close polygons, use close. Select a fill with color. If color is set, pen will control whether the polygon outline is drawn or not. If a symbol is selected, color and pen determines the fill and outline/no outline, respectively.

Full parameter list at


  • A = straight_line

  • B = frame

  • C = cmap

  • D = offset

  • G = color

  • I = intensity

  • J = projection

  • JZ = zsize

  • Jz = zscale

  • L = close

  • N = no_clip

  • Q = no_sort

  • R = region

  • S = style

  • V = verbose

  • W = pen

  • X = xshift

  • Y = yshift

  • Z = zvalue

  • a = aspatial

  • c = panel

  • f = coltypes

  • i = incols

  • l = label

  • p = perspective

  • t = transparency

  • x/y/z (float or 1d arrays) – The x, y, and z coordinates, or arrays of x, y and z coordinates of the data points

  • data (str or numpy.ndarray or pandas.DataFrame or xarray.Dataset or geopandas.GeoDataFrame) – Either a data file name, a 2d numpy.ndarray, a pandas.DataFrame, an xarray.Dataset made up of 1D xarray.DataArray data variables, or a geopandas.GeoDataFrame containing the tabular data. Optionally, use parameter incols to specify which columns are x, y, z, color, and size, respectively.

  • size (1d array) – The size of the data points in units specified in style. Only valid if using x/y/z.

  • direction (list of two 1d arrays) – If plotting vectors (using style='V' or style='v'), then should be a list of two 1d arrays with the vector directions. These can be angle and length, azimuth and length, or x and y components, depending on the style options chosen.

  • projection (str) – Required if this is the first plot command. projcode[projparams/]width. Select map projection.

  • zscale/zsize (float or str) – Set z-axis scaling or z-axis size.

  • region (str or list) – Required if this is the first plot command. xmin/xmax/ymin/ymax[+r][+uunit]. Specify the region of interest.

  • straight_line (bool or str) – [m|p|x|y]. By default, geographic line segments are drawn as great circle arcs. To draw them as straight lines, use straight_line. Alternatively, add m to draw the line by first following a meridian, then a parallel. Or append p to start following a parallel, then a meridian. (This can be practical to draw a line along parallels, for example). For Cartesian data, points are simply connected, unless you append x or y to draw stair-case curves that whose first move is along x or y, respectively. Note: The straight_line parameter requires constant z-coordinates.

  • frame (bool or str or list) – Set map boundary frame and axes attributes.

  • cmap (str) – File name of a CPT file or a series of comma-separated colors (e.g., color1,color2,color3) to build a linear continuous CPT from those colors automatically.

  • offset (str) – dx/dy[/dz]. Offset the plot symbol or line locations by the given amounts dx/dy[/dz] [Default is no offset].

  • color (str or 1d array) – Select color or pattern for filling of symbols or polygons. Default is no fill. color can be a 1d array, but it is only valid if using x/y and cmap=True is also required.

  • intensity (float or bool or 1d array) – Provide an intensity value (nominally in the -1 to +1 range) to modulate the fill color by simulating illumination. If using intensity=True, we will instead read intensity from the first data column after the symbol parameters (if given). intensity can also be a 1d array to set varying intensity for symbols, but it is only valid for x/y/z.

  • close (str) – [+b|d|D][+xl|r|x0][+yl|r|y0][+ppen]. Force closed polygons. Full documentation is at

  • no_clip (bool or str) – [c|r]. Do NOT clip symbols that fall outside map border [Default plots points whose coordinates are strictly inside the map border only]. This parameter does not apply to lines and polygons which are always clipped to the map region. For periodic (360-longitude) maps we must plot all symbols twice in case they are clipped by the repeating boundary. no_clip=True will turn off clipping and not plot repeating symbols. Use no_clip="r" to turn off clipping but retain the plotting of such repeating symbols, or use no_clip="c" to retain clipping but turn off plotting of repeating symbols.

  • no_sort (bool) – Turn off the automatic sorting of items based on their distance from the viewer. The default is to sort the items so that items in the foreground are plotted after items in the background.

  • style (str) – Plot symbols. Full documentation is at

  • timestamp (bool or str) – Draw GMT time stamp logo on plot.

  • verbose (bool or str) –

    Select verbosity level [Default is w], which modulates the messages written to stderr. Choose among 7 levels of verbosity:

    • q - Quiet, not even fatal error messages are produced

    • e - Error messages only

    • w - Warnings [Default]

    • t - Timings (report runtimes for time-intensive algorithms);

    • i - Informational messages (same as verbose=True)

    • c - Compatibility warnings

    • d - Debugging messages

  • pen (str) – Set pen attributes for lines or the outline of symbols.

  • xshift (str) – [a|c|f|r][xshift]. Shift plot origin in x-direction.

  • yshift (str) – [a|c|f|r][yshift]. Shift plot origin in y-direction. Full documentation is at

  • zvalue (str) – value|file. Instead of specifying a symbol or polygon fill and outline color via color and pen, give both a value via zvalue and a color lookup table via cmap. Alternatively, give the name of a file with one z-value (read from the last column) for each polygon in the input data. To apply it to the fill color, use color='+z'. To apply it to the pen color, append +z to pen.

  • aspatial (bool or str) – [col=]name[,…]. Control how aspatial data are handled during input and output. Full documentation is at

  • panel (bool or int or list) – [row,col|index]. Selects a specific subplot panel. Only allowed when in subplot mode. Use panel=True to advance to the next panel in the selected order. Instead of row,col you may also give a scalar value index which depends on the order you set via autolabel when the subplot was defined. Note: row, col, and index all start at 0.

  • coltypes (str) – [i|o]colinfo. Specify data types of input and/or output columns (time or geographical data). Full documentation is at

  • incols (str or 1d array) –

    Specify data columns for primary input in arbitrary order. Columns can be repeated and columns not listed will be skipped [Default reads all columns in order, starting with the first (i.e., column 0)].

    • For 1d array: specify individual columns in input order (e.g., incols=[1,0] for the 2nd column followed by the 1st column).

    • For str: specify individual columns or column ranges in the format start[:inc]:stop, where inc defaults to 1 if not specified, with columns and/or column ranges separated by commas (e.g., incols='0:2,4+l' to input the first three columns followed by the log-transformed 5th column). To read from a given column until the end of the record, leave off stop when specifying the column range. To read trailing text, add the column t. Append the word number to t to ingest only a single word from the trailing text. Instead of specifying columns, use incols='n' to simply read numerical input and skip trailing text. Optionally, append one of the following modifiers to any column or column range to transform the input columns:

      • +l to take the log10 of the input values.

      • +d to divide the input values by the factor divisor [default is 1].

      • +s to multiple the input values by the factor scale [default is 1].

      • +o to add the given offset to the input values [default is 0].

  • label (str) – Add a legend entry for the symbol or line being plotted.

  • perspective (list or str) – [x|y|z]azim[/elev[/zlevel]][+wlon0/lat0[/z0]][+vx0/y0]. Select perspective view and set the azimuth and elevation angle of the viewpoint. Default is [180, 90]. Full documentation is at

  • transparency (int or float) – Set transparency level, in [0-100] percent range. Default is 0, i.e., opaque. Only visible when PDF or raster format output is selected. Only the PNG format selection adds a transparency layer in the image (for further processing). transparency can also be a 1d array to set varying transparency for symbols, but this option is only valid if using x/y/z.

Examples using pygmt.Figure.plot3d